Bird Families

Spix's macaw - Facts | Size | Habitat | Lifespan | Population

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Spix's macaw (cyanopsit spixae), also known as a small blue macaw, or blue spix macaw is native to Macau, Brazil. It is a member of the Tribe Orrini of the subfamily Arini (Neotropical Parrot), part of the family of paternal ancestors (true parrots).

He described German naturalist Georgi Markgrave in natural when he was working in the state of Pernambuco in Brazil and was named after German naturalist Johann Baptiste von Speaks, who collected a specimen on the coast of Rio Sao Francisco in the 5th. In northeast Bahia, Brazil.

Spix's macaw is a medium-sized parrot weighing about 300 grams (11 oz), smaller than most large macaques. Its feathers include various shades of blue, gray-blue heads, light blue under parts and transparent blue upper parts. Men and women are almost identical in appearance, but women are, on average, smaller. There are currently no survivors of this species out of captivity.

Spix's macaw lived in wood galleries in the riparian Caribbean (Tabebuia Aurea) in the Rio Sao Francisco drainage basin in the dry forest climate of northeastern Brazil. It was a very limited natural habitat due to its dependence on trees for nesting, feeding and chickens.

This is mainly due to the limited range of eds feeding on the kaiyiba and various Euphorbiaceae (sparse) herbs, which feed on the dominant plants of the cutting, and in particular habitats, Spix's macaw was rare in the wild in the twentieth century. It was always very rare in captivity, partly because of its natural range.

IUCN considers the Spix's macaw to be probably extinct in the wild. Its last known stronghold in the wild was in northeastern Bahia, Brazil, and after seeing a male bird rare in 2000, the next observation was that the Spix's macaw is now maintained through breeding programs captured in various conservation agencies sponsored by The Brazilian Government in 2016. It is listed in the CITES Appendix I, which makes trade illegal without legal conservation, scientific or educational purposes.

The Brazilian Department of Natural Resources (ICMBO) is conducting a project related to orani-azul so that Spix's macaw species can be brought back to the wild, with sufficient breeding birds and reclaimed habitat.

How much does a Specs Macau cost?
Nowadays, these rare birds, as well as other endangered species, can be sold for $ 200,000 or more. The sale of rare and endangered species generates about US $ 100 billion - US $ 20 billion a year (only a third of drug and black-market weapons).

Description

Spix's macaws are the only small blue macaws and its lures and earrings are easy to identify by the bare gray facial skin, with a length of about 56 cm (22 inches) with a length of 26-30 cm (10-15 inches). Its wingspan is 24.7-30.0 cm (9.7-11.8 inches). The outward appearance of adult males and females is the same.

However, the average weight of captive males is about 318 grams (11.2 oz) and the average females of captive females are approximately 288 grams (10.2 oz), with feather gray-blue, pale blue on the lower parts and transparent blue on the upper parts, wings and tail.

The legs and feet of the Spix's macaw is brown-black. In adults, the skin on the empty face is gray, the pinch is completely dark gray, and the iris is yellow. Like the teenagers in the teens, however, they have pale gray nude facial skin, brown irises and a white stripe along the upper center of their choppy (with Kalman).

Behavior: Simple food

In the wild, the most common seeds and nuts used by the Spix's macaws were Pinho (Jatropa poohliana varo molysima) and Favela (Cindoscolus philalanthus). However, these plants are not colonial, native to bird habitat, so they could not be the historical historical head of the diet.

Its diet includes jojiroi (Zygophus zojeiro), bursa (Shinopis brasiliensis), imburana (Comifora leptoflois or Barcera leptoflovius), pheochro (Pilosacerius pyohayensis), Farandrosa-terraciosa-Farandrosi-terracio-terracio-terracio-terraciosa (Farandrosa-terracio-araboiras). Reports obtained by Maco researchers from previous Spix's macaw appear to add two more plants to the list: Matenus rigida and Geophroia spinosa. There may also be a possibility for a Combatum Leprosum.

Reproduction

The prisoner is a teenager. Note the white stripe on the top of the chunky and pale-gray empty face skin.

Captive Bread Speaks' mako reached sexual maturity at the age of seven. A couple born at Loro Park Fundacin lay eggs at the age of five but were infertile.

It is suspected that late maturity in captivity may be due to breeding or other artificial environmental factors, as other parrots of similar size reach sexual maturity in two to four years. Weaving involves engaging in a wide range of court rituals, such as feeding one another in the confluence and flying together.

This process probably takes a number of seasons for other large parrots, and this may be the case for Spix's macaw. They build their nests at the intersection of large mature curry trees and reuse them year after year.

The breeding season is from November to March, with most of the eggs hatched in January; In the wild, blue spix macaw is believed to lay three eggs per clutch.

In captivity, the average number may be four eggs and one to seven. The incubation period is 25-25 days and only female incubation is performed. Chicks swear within 70 days and go free in 100-130 days.

Macau's confrontation call for Speaks can be described as the word “whichaka.” By making a low ramble in the abdomen the sound reaches a higher altitude The sound of the sound is a repeated short grating. It also sounds jarring.

Its lifetime in the forest is unknown; The only documented bird (the last wild male), was over 20 years old. The largest bird in captivity died at the age of 34.

Distribution and Accommodation

Various details indicate that the birds were seen more in Parnambuco than in Bahia in the 1960s, but not later. The Macau of Speaks was recently known (1979-87) in the Rio Sao Francisco valley in northeastern Brazil, mainly in the basin south of the river Bahia.

In 1974, based on information from bird expert Helmut Sick, traders, and trappers, Macau's possible range of Spix's macaw expanded to embrace the northeastern part of the Goose state and the southern part of Maranh ।o state. Parts of the state of Piau। expanded into a wide area of ​​dry interior in northeastern Brazil.

The study of lone birds discovered in Melanesia creek in 7 has provided sufficient information about its habitat. It was previously estimated that Spix's macaws were widespread within Brazil, with several habitat types, including palm wetlands, cerrado, and dried caetata.

But evidence gathered from Melanesia Creek indicates that Spica's Macau was a particularly well-adapted resident of the disappearing wooden galleries.

Bird expert Tony Silva noted that “where the cariboura have been thrown, such as in the Pernambuco part of the San Francisco River, the species has disappeared”.

The exact range of the bird is uncertain, as much of its flying terrain was cleared before naturalists visited the bird or caraba nest sites.

The historical range is now believed to have covered parts of Bahia and parts of Pernambuco, along the corridor 150-200 km (93-124 miles) up to Rio Sao Francisco in Ju (cio (or perhaps) or Abara (or Remanso) and Abara.

Observations of birds from the East West are very difficult to interpret but are most likely from escaped captured birds or perhaps from the identification of an unknown species of another species such as the red-bellied Macao (Arthopistak manilatus).

Cattinga plants in northeastern Bahia (which contains the Spix's macaw's habitat) are stunted trees, prickly plants and cacti, which are dominated by the Euphorbiaceae family plants.

This macaw cariba or Caribbean trump tree (Tabebuia caraiba) lived in the hottest and driest part of the “Cattinga” in the wooden galleries. The caravans form a microcosm in the catheter.

Existing Galleries are unique timber edges extending a maximum of 18 meters (59 feet) across both ends of the seasonal waterway at least 5 meters wide in the Rio San Francisco drainage basin.

Caraiba woodland was recorded at the middle and lower levels of the creek system where fine sediment was deposited.

The character of the galleries is long (1 meter) evenly spaced with curved shrubs, ten per hundred meters, intersecting with low scrubs and desert cacti.

The large mature plants of this species (and probably any other) provide shelter for the species as well as their seedlings, in addition to nesting the Spix's macaw.

Notable among the seasonal waterways is the Riacho Melancia reservoir, 30 km south of Kuro, where the last known wild Spix's macaws are located in Macau, Riacho Big Grande and Riacho da Vergam Bah 100 km north of Abera, south of Bahia.

Of Rio Sao Francisco. In those 4, they were once only a large filigree in the Creekside Caribbean woodland, which was thought to extend up to 50 kilometers in Katanga, along a significant stretch of the middle of Rio Sao Francisco.

The site, as it was cleared along Brazida Creek on the north shore of Rio Sao Francisco in Pernambuco.

Health and fertility

The captive population suffers from very low heterozygosity - the founding birds of the original wild-caught were very few, closely involved with the wild, and closely involved in captivity - resulting in high rates of infertility and fetal death (in AWWP, only one in six). Only two-thirds of the hatches).

For unknown reasons, originally suspected to be bloodline related, the captured samples showed that sexual maturity had been delayed. The youngest of the fertile eggs was 10 years old.

Other problems with captive breeding are that, probably due to inbreeding, many chickens are at least twice as likely as dogs.

All or almost all breeds of the breeding program are hand-picked by experienced staff, to reduce the risk of losing a rare living chick (about one in ten usable eggs hatch).

No dogs were lost due to weaning. Non-invasive DNA testing of placid feathers has been launched to determine the sex of rats. The sex of the goats is not determined until their feathers develop when they reach the age of one to two months.

Spix's macaw individually chooses their own mate, so giving the best genetic pair is not guaranteed.

Artificially created “twins” can groom and connect with each other as if they are a pair, but in reality, they are not mates, and it may take several seasons to determine.

Another complication is that infected birds cannot be paired with uninfected birds due to the risk of spreading viral disease.

Watch the video: Scarlet Macaws - Costa Rica (March 2021).

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