Bird Families

Primal Thrush / Turdus eremita

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prim blackbird - puikieji strazdai statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Nesocichla angl. Tristan thrush vok. Tristandrossel, f rus. tristan thrush, m, prim thrush, m pranc. grive de Tristan da Cunha, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

prim blackbird - puikusis strazdas statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Nesocichla eremita angl. Tristan thrush vok. Trislandrossel, f rus. tristan thrush, m, prim thrush, m pranc. grive de Tristan da Cunha, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

tristan thrush - puikieji strazdai statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Nesocichla angl. Tristan thrush vok. Tristandrossel, f rus. tristan thrush, m, prim thrush, m pranc. grive de Tristan da Cunha, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

tristan thrush - puikusis strazdas statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Nesocichla eremita angl. Tristan thrush vok. Trislandrossel, f rus. tristan thrush, m, prim thrush, m pranc. grive de Tristan da Cunha, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Blackbirds -? Blackbirds Male blackbird ... Wikipedia

Turdidae -? Blackbirds Male blackbird (Turdus merula) Scientific classification Kingdom: Animals T ... Wikipedia

Nesocichla - puikieji strazdai statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Nesocichla angl. Tristan thrush vok. Tristandrossel, f rus. tristan thrush, m, prim thrush, m pranc. grive de Tristan da Cunha, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Tristan thrush - puikieji strazdai statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Nesocichla angl. Tristan thrush vok. Tristandrossel, f rus. tristan thrush, m, prim thrush, m pranc. grive de Tristan da Cunha, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Tristandrossel - puikieji strazdai statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Nesocichla angl. Tristan thrush vok. Tristandrossel, f rus. tristan thrush, m, prim thrush, m pranc. grive de Tristan da Cunha, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

grive de Tristan da Cunha - puikieji strazdai statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Nesocichla angl. Tristan thrush vok. Tristandrossel, f rus. tristan thrush, m, prim thrush, m pranc. grive de Tristan da Cunha, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

puikieji strazdai - statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Nesocichla angl. Tristan thrush vok. Tristandrossel, f rus. tristan thrush, m, prim thrush, m pranc. grive de Tristan da Cunha, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas - tikrieji strazdai ... ... Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  • See text

Blackbirds (lat. Turdidae ) Is a family of small to medium-sized songbirds distributed in both the eastern and western hemispheres. The classification of the family is currently under revision - different taxonomic systems give different representations of the family. In particular, the third edition of the book Howard & Moore Checklistlisting all known species of birds, 180 species (including nightingales, bluethroats, robins and redstarts) out of more than 300 traditionally classified as blackbirds are classified as flycatchers. Representatives of the family are known primarily for their melodic singing, which favorably distinguishes them from other birds.

Prim blackbird

Universal Russian-English Dictionary. Academic.ru. 2011.

  • prim
  • prim and nervous old man

Description

Small and medium-sized birds, slender, mobile, solid build. The smallest representative of the family should be considered the species Monticola sharpei, belonging to the stone thrush - its average length is 14.5 cm, and its weight is 21 g. The largest species is the bluebird (Myophonus caeruleus) with a length of 33 cm and a weight of about 178 g. All species have similar morphological characteristics: the outline of the body, the length of the legs and tail, and the features of the structure of the beak. One of the characteristic features of blackbirds is their habit of resting with slightly lowered wings, which gives the impression of a crouching bird. In addition, all blackbirds move on the ground by jumping.

The beak is strong, straight, rather slender, with open nostrils, often slightly curved at the tip. The wings are rounded in most cases, with the exception of some migratory species, in which they are longer and tapering at the ends, and have 10 primary flight feathers. Wing coverts are usually very short. The tail is rectangular and consists of 12 tail feathers. Legs of medium length, rather strong, have fused horny plates, as a rule, larger and denser in comparison with other related groups of birds. Tufts, throat sacs, feather rings around the neck and other prominent features are absent. The plumage in its color range can be very diverse, from bright and contrasting to modest and patronizing, but calm, dull tones still prevail. During the breeding season, many species have numerous light spots on the back, and dark spots on the abdomen. Sexual dimorphism can be pronounced or not. For example, in blackbirds (Turdus merula) males appear completely black, while females are dark brown with a lighter breast and whitish throat. On the other hand, the wandering thrush (Turdus migratorius) both genders look pretty much the same.

Area

Thrushes are distributed throughout the world, with the exception of the polar regions and some remote islands. Some individual species are endemic in a small area: for example, three species of stone thrushes (Monticola) - M.sharpei, M.imerinus and M.bensoni live exclusively in Madagascar, an island whose flora and fauna differ significantly from the nearest African coast. White-backed thrush (Turdus kessleri) nests exclusively in coniferous forests in the Himalayas in western China and in Nepal. Basically, thrush still live on a large area: for example, the wandering thrush is distributed almost throughout the territory of North America and even sometimes flies into Europe. The range of the blackbird, including introduced populations, is one of the largest in the entire family: it can be seen nesting in Europe, South and Southeast Asia, North Africa, Australia and New Zealand.

Migration

Birds that live in temperate latitudes are migratory. Meadow coinage (Saxicola rubetra), nesting in the vast territory of Europe and Asia, including the Russian Federation, migrates to Africa in winter. Songbird populations (Turdus philomelos), living in northern Europe and Greenland, in winter also move to the Mediterranean Sea region and North Africa. On the other hand, birds living in the tropics and subtropics are sedentary or wander over short distances.

Habitats

Blackbirds are mainly forest birds that live in wooded areas, thickets of bushes, in crevices of rocks, on cliffs, as well as in city gardens and parks with a large number of woody vegetation. The habitat conditions of individual species can be both quite specific and include a fairly wide range. Some species live close to human habitation and have even settled within urbanized cities. For example, the wandering thrush freely nests in the parks of New York: Central and Prospect Parks. Another inhabitant of North America, eastern sialia (Sialia sialis), prefers to settle not only in natural woodlands, but also inhabits cultural flower beds and gardens. In Europe, the robin, or robin (Erithacus rubecula). On the other hand, the southern nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) nests exclusively in dense undergrowth of deciduous and mixed forests, where it is difficult to spot due to abundant vegetation. Among the birds that are not tied to forests, one can name the black-tailed (Cercomela melanura), living along dry river beds, in crevices of rocks and among the few shrubby acacias in the Middle East.

Reproduction

All thrush are mostly monogamous, but on occasion the female or male may have an additional mate. In case of migration, they arrive early to nesting sites and leave them late. During the breeding season, males selflessly sing, calling the females. The nest is built early, even before the foliage appears, mainly by the female, most often on the branches of trees and shrubs (like in deer (Turdus viscivorus)) either directly on the ground, less often in hollows or burrows. Birds living in settlements, such as blackbirds and wandering thrushes, can use urban infrastructure such as traffic lights and awnings or unused household items such as inverted buckets or fishing boats to build nests. Ordinary heater (Oenanthe oenanthe) hides its nest in crevices between stones, in cracks of clay cliffs or natural earthen voids. Redstarts (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) are occupied by hollows of trees, openings in woodpiles of firewood or gaps between tree roots. Nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) builds its nest directly on the ground, in dense vegetation or between the roots of a bush. In most species, the nest is deep, bowl-shaped and consists of many twigs held together by grass, silt, mud, or manure.

The number and size of clutches varies greatly from species to species. In nightingales, clutching occurs once a season and usually consists of 4-5 olive-colored eggs.In the redstart, the female lays 5-7 eggs. Eastern Sialia (Sialia sialis) is capable of laying 3-7 eggs two or three times a year. In any case, mortality among chicks is high, and as a result, only one or two chicks survive per season, the rest die from disease, hunger, predators or accidents. Eggs are most often speckled, less often one-color. Chicks hatch blind and naked and are initially covered in down.

Food

Predominantly insectivorous, but many species are eaten in large quantities and feed on various insects and their larvae, earthworms, berries and other plant fruits. Among the exceptions are stone thrushes (Monticola spp.), eating exclusively animal food. Singing (Turdus philomelos) and African (Turdus pelios) blackbirds, as well as the bluebird species Myophonus horsfieldii, in places where there is such an opportunity, break snails on the rocks and eat their contents.

As a rule, birds of this family look for food on the ground, listening to extraneous sounds, poking around in a heap of fallen leaves or among the roots of shrubs. Sialia (Sialia) feed on trees among the leaves or catch insects on the fly.

Social behavior

Thrushes adhere to their isolated territory all year round, choosing which they sing loudly, attracting females and warning males. They protect both the nest and the feeding area from birds - for example, a berry bush. Many birds spend the night in groups - for example, it is known that fieldfare (Turdus pilaris) gather in a large group of up to 20 thousand individuals.

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