- Unanswered messages
- Active topics
- our team
- Toplist of posts
How food destroys memory. Food for slaves
We ask those who are engaged in the cultivation of chlorella or spirulina to respond.
Re: Hay stick
Message Ansaraides »27 Aug 2017, 06:05
"Subtle" hay bacillus - bacillus Bacillus subtilis
The hay bacillus (Bacillus subtilis) is one of the bacteria that are widespread in nature. It was first described in 1835. These microbes got this name due to the fact that the culture was originally isolated from rotten hay. Under laboratory conditions, hay was boiled in water in a closed vessel and infused for 2-3 days. After that, a colony of the desired bacteria was formed in the container.
In science, there is the concept of "model organism". These are various representatives of living nature, which are selected for intensive study of certain processes or properties and for conducting scientific experiments. A well-known model organism is ciliates, one of whose representatives is ciliate-shoe (Paramecium caudatum) - we are well acquainted with school lessons.
Hay bacillus also belongs to model organisms. Thanks to her, sporulation in bacteria was thoroughly studied. It is also a model for understanding the mechanism of flagella, research in the field of molecular genetics.
An experiment was carried out to grow Bacillus subtilis under conditions close to zero gravity to study the changes in the population genome. In addition, these bacteria are used to study the effect of cosmic ultraviolet radiation and the adaptability of living organisms to it. On the example of bacilli, the possibility of survival of microorganisms in space and conditions of other planets, in particular, Mars, is studied.
Study of microbes
a brief description of
As can be clearly seen in the photo, the hay stick has a straight elongated shape with blunt rounded ends, usually colorless. The diameter of the bacteria is on average 0.6 microns (0.0006 mm), the length ranges from 3 to 8 microns (0.003-0.008 mm). With this size, it can be viewed and photographed using a modern school microscope. Bacilli are mobile due to the existing flagella. They grow over the entire surface of the cell, as you can see in the photo.
These bacteria, being predominantly aerobes, require molecular oxygen for their vital activity. Although some strains are able to switch to anoxic respiration (facultative anaerobes).
The bacterium traditionally belongs to soil microorganisms. From the soil, it gets on the leaves of plants, fruits and vegetables. But at the same time, it is found in airborne dust and in water. It is part of the normal intestinal microflora of animals and humans. It develops well at a temperature of + 5 ° ... + 45 ° C, the optimal range is 25-30 ° C.
Hay bacillus (Bacillus subtilis) under a microscope
From the available photos, you can make sure that the bacterial colonies look like this:
on the surface of liquids - a thin film with a whitish tint,
on dense media - a velvety coating with fine wrinkles and wavy edges, it can be colorless, grayish or pink.
Reproduction and sporulation
Hay bacillus, like other bacteria, multiplies by simple longitudinal cell division in half. New bacteria formed after such division often remain connected by a thin thread. Such threads are easily distinguishable in the photo.
Sporulation of bacteria begins with the fact that the contents of the cell (protoplast) acquire a granular structure. One of the seeds, most often in the center of the cell, begins to grow and becomes covered with a hard shell. At the same time, there is a gradual destruction of the outer shell of the mother cell. The process ends with the loss of the dispute to the external environment.
Each of the cells connected by filaments after vegetative division retains the ability to form spores.
Based on microscopic photos, most spores are round or oval in shape. They are resistant to unfavorable external factors, in particular, to elevated temperatures - they can withstand overheating above 100 ° C.
Sporulation scheme of bacteria
Cells developed from spores and their first offspring are immobile. The ability to move appears only in the next generations.
Bacillus subtilis belongs to saprophytes, that is, it feeds on dead organic matter. These bacteria, being heterotrophs, cannot synthesize organic substances from inorganic compounds, but use organics produced by others. From it, they also extract the carbon necessary for energy exchange.
The main source of energy is glucose-containing polysaccharides of both plant (starch) and animal (glycogen) origin. In the process of nutrition, the synthesis of amino acids, vitamins, various enzymes and antibiotics occurs, the acidity of the environment increases.
Relationship with other organisms
Hay bacillus suppresses the development of pathogenic and opportunistic microbes: salmonella, streptococci, staphylococci and others. A typical example is the reflex developed by many generations of carnivorous animals to periodically eat certain plant varieties. This not only enriches their body with vitamins, but also contributes to the ingestion of hay bacillus spores, which destroys pathogenic flora and increases the immunity of animals.
Some microbes, such as lactic acid lactobacillus plantarum (Lactobacillus plantarum), inhibit the development of hay bacillus. Hay bacillus serves as food for protozoa. So, the beginning of one of the food chains looks like this: hay bacillus - infusoria-shoe - mollusk - fish, etc. up to the person.
The methods of "hunting" in protozoa are different. For example, in an amoeba (Amoeba), outgrowths of the internal environment of cells (pseudopods or pseudo-fertility) are constantly formed and disappear. She surrounds the victim with them and pulls her into the cage. And, for example, a ciliate-shoe for absorption of food has a cellular mouth (cytostome). In the photo, it is visible as a depression on the body. With the help of cilia growing next to it and combined into complex structures, water is pushed into the mouth along with the bacteria it contains. Infusoria finds clumps of bacteria by the chemicals they release.
According to most classifications, hay bacillus is not considered pathogenic to humans and animals. It helps to digest food, breaking down proteins and carbohydrates, fights against pathogenic microflora of the intestines and skin.
Microbes in our body: benefit or harm
However, the negative effects of this bacterium are also noted:
sometimes causes allergies, often expressed as a rash on the human body,
some strains can cause food poisoning after eating food they spoil,
can cause severe human eye infections.
Hay bacilli-sticks are the main active ingredient of many medicines. They are used for acute intestinal infections in children, with intestinal dysbiosis, in the postoperative period for the prevention of suppuration, etc.
Most often, the basis of drugs is the Bacillus subtilis 534 strain (the Sporobacterin drug) or the Bacillus subtilis 3H strain obtained from it selectively (the Bactisporin drug). Used in pharmacology and strain 31, for example, in the production of the drug Biosporin. All of these drugs are anti-microbial. Their value is especially great in the fight against bacterial infection, when the patient, for one reason or another, cannot take antibiotics.
Hay sticks are also included in many dietary supplements (dietary supplements). For example, Supradin Kinder gel, Vetom, Baktistatin and others.
Antibiotics in pills
It is the basis of many animal preparations. These are Bacterin-SL, Endosporin, Protexin, Enterobacterin and others. They are successfully used in animal husbandry, poultry farming and fish farming to fight pathogenic bacteria, tapeworms and to improve immunity.
There is a separate group of preparations based on Bacillus subtilis for plant growing: Alirin-B, Gamair, Fitosporin and others. Their main task is to protect plants from diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. An undoubted advantage is their absolute harmlessness to humans when ingested with fruits.
Hay stick is also used to ferment oats and beans. In Japan, there is a traditional natto dish made from fermented soybeans. For their fermentation, a special bacillus strain is used - Bacillus natto. Nutritional supplements are even made from natto extracts, and in the United States, the veterinary drug Glogen-8 was developed on the basis of Bacillus natto.
The enzymes produced by hay bacillus are industrially produced for the breakdown of proteins (protease, amylase). Thus, protease is a part of household detergents, as well as means for cleansing skins from proteins and fat during their dressing.
Do parasites live in your body?
In everyday life, it is so easy to "pick up" parasites, because contact with them is simply inevitable, especially if you often use public transport, visit crowded places, and just are on the street.
Symptoms of the appearance of parasites in the body can be:
frequent colds, acute respiratory infections, sore throat, cough,
allergies, persistent runny nose, redness of the eyes,
skin allergies, itching, eczema,
warts and papillomas,
headaches, as well as various pains and spasms in the internal organs.